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Who is at risk?

Ammonia is the most commonly used in the agricultural sector as a crop fertilizer. Ammonia is also used in the manufacture of commercial explosives.


Pungent odour


Ammonia causes immediate irritation of the nose and throat. Inhalation of higher concentrations can cause an accumulation of fluid in the lungs, obstructed airways and severe breathing difficulties.

Acute Exposure

Concentration Effect
50 ppm Mild irritation to eyes nose and throat
250 ppm Rapid eye and throat irritation
700 ppm Immediately irritating to eyes and throat
1500 ppm Accumulation of fluid in the lungs, severe coughing, breathing difficulties
2500 -4500 ppm Fatal after 30 minutes
5000 - 1000 ppm Respiratory failure - rapidly fatal

Exposure Controls & Protection

Employees who work with anhydrous ammonia must be provided with proper safety equipment:

NFPA 704 Signal

  Hazard Value Description
Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Flammability 1 Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions
Special -